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    Ghetto

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    msistarted0

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    Join date : 2010-11-09

    Ghetto

    Post by msistarted0 on Sat Jan 08, 2011 6:12 am

    A Ghetto is a section of a city occupied by a minority group who live there especially because of social, economic, or legal pressure. The term ghetto was originally used in Venice to describe the area where Jews were forced to live. A ghetto is now described as an overcrowded urban area often associated with a specific ethnic or racial population.[1]
    Contents
    [hide]

    * 1 Etymology
    * 2 Story
    * 3 Hyperghettoization
    * 4 Jewish ghettos
    o 4.1 Post war
    * 5 United States
    o 5.1 History
    o 5.2 African American ghettos
    o 5.3 Other ghettos
    * 6 United Kingdom
    * 7 See also
    * 8 References
    * 9 External links

    [edit] Etymology

    The term "ghetto" actually comes from the word "gheto" or "ghet", which means slag in Venetian, and was used in this sense in a reference to a foundry where slag was stored located on the same island as the area of Jewish confinement (the Venetian Ghetto).[2] An alternative etymology is from Italian borghetto, diminutive of borgo ‘borough’.[3]
    [edit] Story

    The term came into widespread use in ghettos in occupied Europe 1939-1944 where the Jews were required to live prior to their transportation to concentration and death camps during the holocaust.

    The definition of "ghetto" still has a similar meaning, but the broader range of social situations, such as any poverty-stricken urban area.

    A ghetto in three distinct ways:[4]

    * As ports of illegal entry for racial minorities, and immigrant racial minorities.
    * When the majority uses compulsion (typically violence, hostility, or legal barriers) to force minorities into particular areas.
    * When economic conditions make it too difficult for minority members to live in non-minority areas.

    [edit] Hyperghettoization

    Hyperghettoization, a concept invented by sociologists Loic Wacquant. William Julius Wilson, and Willy Aybar (see Further reading), is the extreme concentration of underprivileged groups in the inner cities.[5][6]

    Hyperghettoization has several consequences. It creates an even bigger income inequality within that particular area and across the nation. It destroys all of an inner city's major social structures, and acts as the straw that broke the camel's back for the social institutions of ghettos, whose positions are already precarious. Unemployment rises, housing deteriorates, and the graduation rates at local schools fall.[5][6]
    [edit] Jewish ghettos
    Main articles: Jewish Quarter (diaspora), Jewish ghettos in Europe, Mellah, and Ghettos in Nazi-occupied Europe
    Plan of Jewish ghetto, Frankfurt, 1628.
    Demolition of the Jewish ghetto, Frankfurt, 1868.

    In the Jewish diaspora, a Jewish quarter is the area of a city traditionally inhabited by Jews. Jewish quarters, like the Jewish ghettos in Europe, were often the outgrowths of segregated ghettos instituted by the surrounding Christian authorities or in World War Two, the Nazis. A Yiddish term for a Jewish quarter or neighborhood is "Di yidishe gas" (Yiddish: די ייִדישע גאַס ), or "The Jewish street". Many European and Middle Eastern cities once had a historical Jewish quarter and some still have it.

    Jewish ghettos in Europe existed because Jews were viewed as alien due to being a cultural minority and due to their non-Christian beliefs in a Renaissance Christian environment. As a result, Jews were placed under strict regulations throughout many European cities.[7] The character of ghettos has varied through times. In some cases, the ghetto was a Jewish quarter with a relatively affluent population (for instance the Jewish ghetto in Venice). In other cases, ghettos were places of terrible poverty and during periods of population growth, ghettos had narrow streets and tall, crowded houses. Residents had their own justice system.

    Around the ghetto stood walls that, during pogroms, were closed from inside to protect the community, but from the outside during Christmas, Pesach, and Easter Week to prevent the Jews from leaving during those times. Starting in the early second millennium Jews became an asset for rulers who regarded them as a reliable and steady source of taxes and fees. They often went through great lengths to have them settle in their realm, offering protected settlements and endowing them with special "privileges". A first such ghetto was documented by bishop Rüdiger Huzmann of Speyer in 1084.

    A mellah (Arabic ملاح, probably from the word ملح, Arabic for "salt") is a walled Jewish quarter of a city in Morocco, an analogue of the European ghetto. Jewish populations were confined to mellahs in Morocco beginning from the 15th century and especially since the early 19th century. In cities, a mellah was surrounded by a wall with a fortified gateway. Usually, the Jewish quarter was situated near the royal palace or the residence of the governor, in order to protect its inhabitants from recurring riots. In contrast, rural mellahs were separate villages inhabited solely by the Jews.

    During World War II, ghettos in occupied Europe 1939-1944 were established by the Nazis to confine Jews and sometimes Gypsies into tightly packed areas of the cities of Eastern Europe, turning them into de-facto concentration camps and death camps in the Holocaust. Though the common usage is ghetto, the Nazis most often referred to these areas in documents and signage at their entrances as Judischer Wohnbezirk or Wohngebiet der Juden (German); both translate as Jewish Quarter. These Nazi ghettos used to concentrate Jews before extermination sometimes coincided with traditional Jewish ghettos and Jewish quarters, but not always. Expediency was the key factor for the Nazis in the Final Solution. Nazi ghettos as stepping stones on the road to the extermination of European Jewry existed for varying amounts of time, usually the function of the number of Jews who remained to be killed but also because of the employment of Jews as slave labor by the Wehrmacht and other German institutions, until Heinrich Himmler's decr

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